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Our vision is to become the leading European initiative that empowers innovators and entrepreneurs to develop world-class solutions to create growth and jobs.

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A body of the European Union

European Institute of Innovation Technology (EIT)
Innovation Communities

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What is an Innovation Community?

The EIT’s Knowledge and Innovation Communities (Innovation Communities) are partnerships that bring together businesses, research centres and universities. They allow:

Through our Innovation Communities, we strengthen cooperation among businesses (including SMEs), higher education institutions and research organisations, form dynamic pan-European partnerships, and create favourable environments for creative thought processes and innovations to flourish. Real sustainable products, services, entrepreneurs, engineers, scientists, companies, revenue, profit and jobs are emerging from our Innovation Communities, right here in Europe – concrete results from Europe’s, if not the world’s, largest innovation network.

EIT Innovation Communities are dynamic and creative partnerships that harnessEuropean innovation and entrepreneurship tofind solutions to major societal challenges in areaswith high innovation potential – andcreate quality jobs and growth.Since 2010, we have launched six Innovation Communities.

The Innovation Communitiescarry out activities that cover the entire innovation chain: training and education programmes, reinforcing the journey from research to the market, innovation projects, as well as business incubators and accelerators. The EIT’s role is to guide the process and set the strategies, but it’s up to the Innovation Communities to put these into practice and provide results.

There are currently sixInnovation Communities and each focuses on a different societal challenge:

Each Innovation Communityhas been set up as a legal entity and has appointed a CEO to run its operations – a first for an EU initiative. The EIT has provided the Innovation Communities with a great degree of autonomy to define their legal status, internal organisation and working methods, and the Innovation Communities have been conceived so that they are able to react in an effective and flexible way to new challenges and changing environments. Gain access to new markets and take advantage of new business opportunities by becoming part of the EIT Community. Increase your innovation potential!

How do the EIT and Innovation Communities work together?

The Innovation Communities are created by the EIT to achieve the EIT’s mission of boosting innovation in Europe, creating growth and jobs, and creating the entrepreneurs of tomorrow.

The EIT sets the educational, entrepreneurial and innovation strategies for the Innovation Communities by outlining activities that contribute to the integration of the knowledge triangle. These activities are set out in individual Framework Partnership Agreements and Specific Grant Agreements signed with the Innovation Communities. The former establishes long-term cooperation and sets out its terms and conditions as well as the general terms and conditions, rights and obligations applicable to the specific grants that may be awarded by the EIT for actions under the Framework Partnership Agreement, which is entered into for a period of seven years.

To find out more about the relationship between the EIT and its Innovation Communities, InterestPrint Womens Cross Trainer Running Shoes Jogging Lightweight Sports Walking Athletic Sneakers Multi 6 15V8Bh2Yb

What does the EIT do?

To find out more about what the EIT does, check out the ‘ EIT at a glance ’ page.

The EIT is a unique European initiative that brings together leading universities, research and companies to form dynamic partnerships.

EIT Community:

The European Institute of Innovation Technology (EIT) is an independent body of the European Union set up in 2008 to boost innovation and entrepreneurship across Europe. The EITbrings together leading higher education institutions, research labs and companies to form dynamic cross-border partnerships –Innovation Communities - that develop innovative products and services, start new companies, and train a new generation of entrepreneurs.

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Thinking into the future When Are We Obligated To Edit Wild Creatures?
Big Questions Opinion Essay

Cows on a pasture, who, among other mammals, could experience immense suffering from the New World screwworm. (© Creaturart/Fotolia)

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Kevin Esvelt

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Combining CRISPR genome editing with the natural phenomenon of gene drive allows us to rewrite the genomes of wild organisms. The benefits of saving children from malaria by editing mosquitoes are obvious and much discussed, but humans aren’t the only creatures who suffer. If we gain the power to intervene in a natural world “red in tooth and claw," yet decline to use it, are we morally responsible for the animal suffering that we could have prevented?

Given the power to alter the workings of the natural world, are we morally obligated to use it?

The scenario that may redefine our relationship with the natural world begins with fine clothing. You’re dressed to the nines for a formal event, but you arrived early, and it’s such a beautiful day that you decided to take a stroll by the nearby lake. Suddenly, you hear the sound of splashing and screams. A child is drowning! Will you dive in to save them? Or let them die, and preserve your expensive outfit?

The philosopher Peter Singer posited this scenario to show that we are all terrible human beings. Just about everyone would save the child and ruin the outfit… leading Singer to question why so few of us give equivalent amounts of money to save children on the other side of the world. The Against Malaria Foundation averages one life saved for every $7000.

But despite having a local bias, our moral compasses aren’t completely broken. You never even considered letting the child drown because the situation wasn’t your fault. That’s because the cause of the problem simply isn’t relevant: as the one who could intervene, the consequences are on your head. .

There is a critical difference between Singer’s original scenario and the one above: in his version, it was a muddy pond. Any adult can rescue a child from a muddy pond, but a lake is different; you can only save the child if you know how to swim.

Few would disagree with either of these moral statements, but when they are combined with increasingly powerful technologies, the implications are deeply unsettling. Given the power to alter the workings of the natural world, are we morally obligated to use it? Recent developments suggest we had best determine the answer soon because, technologically, we are learning to swim. What choices will we make?

Gene drive is a natural phenomenon that occurs when a genetic element reliably spreads through a population even though it reduces the reproductive fitness of individual organisms. Nature has evolved many different mechanisms that result in gene drive, so many that it’s nearly impossible to find an organism that doesn’t have at least one driving element somewhere in its genome. More than half of our own DNA comprises the broken remnants of gene drives, plus a few active copies.

Scientists have long dreamed of harnessing gene drive to block mosquito-borne disease, with little success. Then came CRISPR genome editing, which works by cutting target genes and replacing them with a new sequence. What happens if you replace the original sequence with the edited version an encoded copy of the CRISPR system? Gene drive.

CRISPR is a molecular scalpel that we can use to cut, and therefore replace, just about any DNA sequence in any cell. Encode the instructions for the CRISPR system adjacent to the new sequence, and genome editing will occur in the reproductive cells of subsequent generations of heterozygotes, always converting the original wild-type version to the new edited version. By ensuring that offspring will all be born of one sex, or by arranging for organisms that inherit two copies of the gene drive to be sterile, it’s theoretically possible to cause a population crash. (Credit: Esvelt)

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This is an important question because we need some notion of how good or bad our model is, in order to optimize it to do well. What should we optimize? The correct answer really depends on what we’re using the model for: Do we only care about whether the top guess was right, or do we care about how confident we are in the correct answer? How bad is it to be confidently wrong? There isn’t one right answer to this. And often it isn’t possible to know the right answer, because we don’t know how the model will be used in a precise enough way to formalize what we ultimately care about. The result is that there are situations where cross-entropy really is precisely what we care about, but that isn’t always the case. Much more often we don’t know exactly what we care about and cross-entropy is a really nice proxy. La Sportiva Mutant Womens Trail Running Shoes SS18 Finale Vs Woman Grey/Coral Talla 41 fftNl

Information gives us a powerful new framework for thinking about the world. Sometimes it perfectly fits the problem at hand; other times it’s not an exact fit, but still extremely useful. This essay has only scratched the surface of information theory – there are major topics, like error-correcting codes, that we haven’t touched at all – but I hope I’ve shown that information theory is a beautiful subject that doesn’t need to be intimidating.

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Claude Shannon’s original paper on information theory, A Mathematical Theory of Communication , is remarkably accessible. (This seems to be a recurring pattern in early information theory papers. Was it the era? A lack of page limits? A culture emanating from Bell Labs?)

Cover Thomas’ Elements of Information Theory seems to be the standard reference. I found it helpful.

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, Aaron Courville , Nick Beckstead , Jon Shlens , Andrew Dai, Christian Howard , and Martin Wattenberg .

Thanks also to my first two neural network seminar series for acting as guinea pigs for these ideas.

Finally, thanks to the readers who caught errors and omissions. In particular, thanks to Connor Zwick, Kai Arulkumaran, Jonathan Heusser, Otavio Good, and an anonymous commenter.

Understanding Convolutions

Groups Group Convolutions

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Visualizing Representations

Deep Learning and Human Beings

It’s fun to use this to visualize naive Bayesian classifiers, which assume independence…


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